Science Information Sheets

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    Pine Pollen

    Radiata pine forests in New Zealand produce large clouds of pollen every year. This pollen may cause concern for people who suffer from allergies.
    Published Online - 30 Aug 2016. [292.3 KB] (pdf).
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    Giant Willow Aphid in New Zealand

    The giant willow aphid (GWA), Tuberolachnus salignus, was first recorded in New Zealand in 2013. Since then it has spread rapidly throughout the country.
    Published Online - 25 Aug 2015. [307.4 KB] (pdf).
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    Updates in Managing Red Needle Cast

    Phosphite fungicides have the potential to be an effective treatment for controlling the disease red needle cast in radiata pine, which is caused by the microorganism Phytophthora pluvialis.
    Published Online - 2015. [246.8 KB] (pdf).
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    Updates in Weed Research

    Minimising the environmental impacts of forest weeds in New Zealand.
    Published Online - 2015. [286.3 KB] (pdf).
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    Managing Our Resources For Fresh Water Quality

    Scion provides the science to support the sustainable use of New Zealand’s fresh water resources.
    Published Online - 17 Jun 2015. [248.4 KB] (pdf).
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    Species Preferences Checklist

    A checklist of tree attributes designed to help forest growers choose the right tree species to meet their requirements.
    Published Online - 2014. [29.9 KB] (pdf).
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    Updates in Wilding Conifer Management

    Minimising the environmental impacts of wilding conifers in New Zealand.
    Published Online - 2 Jun 2015. [875.5 KB] (pdf).
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    Healthy Trees, Healthy Future - Red Needle Cast

    Identifying resistance to Phytophthora diseases in radiata pine.
    Published Online - 5 Jun 2015. [550.9 KB] (pdf).
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    Healthy Trees, Healthy Future - Phytophthora

    Phytophthora is a genus of soil or airborne plant pathogens that pose major challenges to global biosecurity.
    Published Online - 5 Jun 2015. [191.4 KB] (pdf).
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    Healthy Trees, Healthy Future - Understanding Kauri Dieback

    Identifying resistance to Phytophthora diseases in kauri.
    Published Online - 30 Jun 2015. [693.5 KB] (pdf).
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    Biocontrol - Eucalyptus Tortoise Beetle

    Scion wants to import the Tasmanian parasitoid wasp, Eadya paropsidis, into our containment facility to evaluate it as a biocontrol agent against the forestry pest Paropsis charybdis, or eucalyptus tortoise beetle. Scion has a long history of managing pests using biocontrol for the forest industry.
    Published Online - 4 Jun 2014. [699.7 KB] (pdf).
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    Biocontrol - Gum Leaf Skeletoniser

    Scion is releasing the Australian parasitoid wasp Cotesia urabae in locations around New Zealand, as a biological control agent for the gum leaf skeletoniser (Uraba lugens). The caterpillar defoliates eucalypts, and poses a serious threat to our commercial forestry industry, urban environments and public health.
    Published Online - 4 Jun 2014. [189.2 KB] (pdf).
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    Indigenous Species - Manuka and other species

    Indigenous species can provide commercial and economic opportunities for landowners and forest growers in addition to timber resources.
    Published Online - 4 Jun 2014. [366.6 KB] (pdf).
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    Indigenous Species - Totara

    Indigenous species could provide a viable alternative for landowners and forest growers where radiata pine is not the species of choice. Totara can be valuable as a timber, carbon sequestration and environmental resource.
    Published Online - 4 Jun 2014. [1.2 MB] (pdf).
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    Indigenous Species - Kauri

    Indigenous species, such as kauri, can provide commercial and economic opportunities for landowners and forest growers seeking to diversify.
    Published Online - 4 Jun 2014. [549.5 KB] (pdf).
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    Commercial Species - Cypress

    Cypress is a highly sought-after timber, nationally and internationally. From Scion’s breeding programme, hybrid cypress clones with high durability and disease resistance have been developed.
    Published Online - 4 Jun 2014. [981.5 KB] (pdf).
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    Commercial Species - Eucalypts

    Scion has been researching eucalypt species for over forty years, and developing breeding programmes and high quality seed for New Zealand forests.
    Published Online - 4 Jun 2014. [489.2 KB] (pdf).
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    Commercial Species - Coast Redwood

    Durable or semi-durable timber for external use can be produced from coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens). Good growth in New Zealand, coupled with restrictions on supply from native Californian stands, has increased focus on locally grown coast redwood.
    Published Online - 4 Jun 2014. [259.0 KB] (pdf).
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    Veritec: Analytical Chemistry Service

    Veritec is Scion’s analytical chemistry laboratory specialising in forestry related samples and material testing. Veritec provides a variety of component level tests focused on soil, foliage, waste water, wood and wood preservation.
    Published Online - 22 Jan 2014. [287.6 KB] (pdf).
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    Biodegradation & Compostability Testing

    Scion has designed and built a test facility for measuring the composting of materials like bioplastics, paper and wood.
    Published Online - 3 Feb 2016. [163.6 KB] (pdf).
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    TOGA: Titration and Off-Gas Analyser

    The Scion-developed titration off-gas analyser (TOGA) helps measure and control process reactions such as those that occur in wastewater treatment systems.
    Published Online - 28 Aug 2012. [104.5 KB] (pdf).
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    The Scion Geospatial Team - Mapping Out NZ Forestry’s Future

    At Scion, our Geospatial Team has a range of GIS skills and capability from spatial analysis, statistics through to modelling. These skills and capability are employed on a number of cross-disciplinary projects. This document highlights what we can offer to research projects at Scion.
    Published Online - 19 Jul 2012. [602.7 KB] (pdf).
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    TERAX Hydrothermal Deconstruction

    The TERAX hydrothermal deconstruction technology, which involves Crown Research Institute Scion and the Rotorua District Council, is testing a new approach to organic waste management.
    Published Online - 2013. [149.2 KB] (pdf).
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    Scion's Genetically Modified Tree Research

    A factsheet about Scion’s genetic modification research history, Scion’s current research programme, and the global benefits. Also a list of GM research papers published by Scion scientists.
    Published Online - 2013. [152.4 KB] (pdf).
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    Torrefaction: Technology for energy-dense wood fuels

    After less than an hour of being treated at 200 to 300ºC in an oxygen-free environment, torrefied wood has a low moisture content, high energy density and can be easily crushed. It has the potential to compete with coal as a fuel source in New Zealand.
    Published Online - 28 Aug 2012. [131.2 KB] (pdf).
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    Waste 2 Gold : Deconstruction Technologies for Organic Waste Utilisation

    NZ's organic wastes can be a valuable high volume source of energy, biomaterials and fertilisers. The TERAX technology developed in the Waste 2 Gold initiative utilises these resources. .
    Published Online - Feb 2010. [281.6 KB] (pdf).
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    The ZESPRI Biospife

    Scion is working with New Zealand kiwifruit producer ZESPRI® to replace their current petrochemical-based (conventional plastic) spife with an environmentally-friendly version.
    Published Online - 3 Feb 2016. [98.8 KB] (pdf).
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    GM tree research FAQs

    Some frequently asked questions and answers about genetic modification research and Scion's field trials with radiata pine.
    Published Online - 2013. [155.9 KB] (pdf).
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    Te Maramatanga o Te Tipuranga

    This panui (booklet) contains information on Scion's mahi (work) on the results of the field trial of genetically modified pine and spruce trees. 'Te Maramanga o Te Tipuranga' means ‘understanding’ (Maramatanga) of ‘growth’ (Tipuranga).
    Published Online - 2004. [2.1 MB] (pdf).
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    Materials Processing & Characterisation List

    Scion's materials characterisation and processing equipment are available to commercial clients.
    Published Online - 14 Oct 2015. [238.9 KB] (pdf).
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    New Zealand Native Trees

    The latest information about managing planted stands of native trees is available in the New Zealand Indigenous Tree Bulletin series. The focus of these bulletins is on growing for production as well as environmental, cultural and social objectives.
    Published Online - 6 Dec 2012. [1.7 MB] (pdf).
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    Forests and Climate Change: Carbon Forestry - the opportunity

    Well-managed forests can deliver many benefits to growers and society generally; carbon capture is one of them. New Zealand’s Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) enables growers of forests planted after 1989 the opportunity to trade carbon credits for profit.
    Published Online - 22 Aug 2012. [221.3 KB] (pdf).
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    Forests and Climate Change: Wind Damage

    Forests and Climate Change: Wind Damage. Broken and uprooted trees caused by severe wind events can result in large value losses for forest growers. Extreme winds, including subtropical cyclones, are predicted to become more frequent in New Zealand.
    Published Online - 2013. [256.3 KB] (pdf).
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    Forests and Climate Change: Bioenergy from Forests

    Biomass arising from planted forests represents one of New Zealand’s largest renewable resources. As long as a tree is planted for every one that is cut down, woody biomass offers an abundant source of low-carbon energy.
    Published Online - 20 Jul 2012. [237.7 KB] (pdf).
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    Forests and Climate Change: Pests Diseases and Weeds

    Forests and Climate Change: Pests, Diseases and Weeds. The impact of pests, diseases and weeds cause significant economic losses in planted forests. These risks are expected to increase with climate change as average temperatures rise.
    Published Online - 2013. [235.8 KB] (pdf).
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    Forests and Climate Change: High Intensity Rain

    Forests and Climate Change: High Intensity Rain. Erosion and flooding caused by heavy rain can damage soils and create havoc downstream from sediment and debris flows. Intense rain events are predicted to become more frequent in New Zealand as average temperatures rise.
    Published Online - 2013. [289.6 KB] (pdf).
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    Forests and Climate Change: Fire Risk

    Forests and Climate Change: Fire Risk. Many regions of New Zealand are expected to get warmer, drier and windier in the future. These changes will cause a significant increase in fire danger for some areas, meaning higher potential losses for forest growers.
    Published Online - 2013. [206.5 KB] (pdf).
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    Tech Sheet: Anaerobic Digestion

    Anaerobic Digestion is a series of processes in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen. It is used for industrial or domestic purposes to reduce waste and/or to release energy. Sludge production is lower from this process than from aerobic treatment (normally earlier in the treatment chain).
    Published Online - 10 May 2013. [3.0 MB] (pdf).
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    Tech Sheet: Combustion

    Combustion of waste involves the total conversion of organic solids to oxidised end products, primarily carbon dioxide, water and ash. Combustion can be purely for waste reduction, an added benefit is the recovery of energy in the form of heat and steam. Efficient combustion destroys pathogens and toxic compounds.
    Published Online - 10 May 2013. [3.2 MB] (pdf).
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    Tech Sheet: Composting

    Controlled aerobic decomposition/stabilisation of organic matter over a period of several months. The high temperatures required for effective composting (70°C) reduce pathogen levels in the final product and also reduce microbial levels compared to vermicomposting.
    Published Online - 10 May 2013. [3.1 MB] (pdf).
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    Tech Sheet: Sludge Dewatering

    Sludge dewatering is an intermediate process that mechanically reduces the moisture content of sludge for subsequent processing. Dewatering lowers the volume and weight of solid wastes, reducing costs (such as transport and landfill).
    Published Online - 10 May 2013. [174.3 KB] (pdf).
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    Tech Sheet: Sludge Drying

    Sludge Drying generally involves the use of low grade (waste) heat, wind, air or solar energy to lower the moisture content of solid wastes. Solar drying in lagoons and drying beds is a low cost option that requires time and space. The performance of these open systems are strongly weather dependent.
    Published Online - 10 May 2013. [2.9 MB] (pdf).
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    Tech Sheet: Vermicomposting

    Vermicomposting is the process of composting using compost worms to create a heterogeneous mixture of decomposing vegetable or food waste, bedding materials, and vermicast. The material used for vermicomposting needs to be presented as a blended mass at an acceptable carbon to nitrogen ratio. If the carbon to nitrogen ratio is too high or too low, waste degradation is slowed.
    Published Online - 10 May 2013. [3.2 MB] (pdf).
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