Glossary


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A

Appressed:

Pressed closely to the axis upward with angle of divergence 15 or less.








F

Fusiform:

Spindle-shaped, broadest in the middle and tapering to each end








I

Incurved:

Curved inward or upward.








L

Leaf sheaths:

Dry leaf like structures surrounding the base of a pine needle(s). Sheaths are permanent or deciduous. The soft pines, which are mostly 5-needled, possess decideous leaf sheaths, whereas the hard pines (mostly 2-3 needled) possess permanent sheaths.








N

Needles:

The needle-like leaves of pines.








O

Ovoid:

Egg-shaped.








R

Reflexed:

Bent or turned downward or backward.

Rosettes:

A circular arrangement of leaves or scales.








S

Serotinous:

Requiring the heat of a fire to release seeds from cones.

Stomata:

 Pore, found in the leaf and stem epidermis that is used for gas exchange and may be closed to retain moisture in the plant.








U

Umbo:

Projection, with or without spine or prickle, on the exposed outer surface of a cone scale as seen when the cone is closed.

Uninodal:

Spring shoot developing from the terminal winter bud and prodcuing only one internode with one whorl of branches at the end; the cones are subterminal at the end of the shoot.