Published papers by Scion scientists

Te Maramatanga o Te Tipuranga

The main focus of the panui (booklet) entitled 'Te Maramatanga o Te Tipuranga' is to inform hapu and iwi of Forest Research’s mahi (work) on the results of the 2004 field trial of genetically modified Pine and Spruce trees.

Te Maramatanga o Te Tipuranga, literally translated, means ‘understanding’ (Maramatanga) of ‘growth’ (Tipuranga). The concept applies to the trees themselves, as well as the learning for both Maori and for Forest Research scientists.

Refereed Papers from Scion’s Genetic Modification Research

 Wagner A, Tobimatsu Y, Goeminne G, Phillips L, Flint H, Steward D, Torr K, Donaldson L, Boerjan W, Ralph J 2012: Suppression of CCR impacts metabolite profile and cell wall composition in Pinus radiata tracheary elements. Plant Molecular Biology, DOI : 10.1007/s11103-012-9985-z.

No Impact of Transgenic nptII-leafy Pinus radiata (Pinales: Pinaceae) on Pseudocoremia suavis (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) or Its Endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).  E.P.J. Burgess, E. I. Barraclough, A. M. Kean, C. Walter, and L. A. Malone. Environmental Entomology, 40(5):1331-1340. 2011.

Investigation of organic anions in tree root exudates and rhizosphere microbial communities using in situ and destructive sampling techniques.  Shengjing Shi & Maureen O’Callaghan & E. Eirian Jones & Alan E. Richardson & Christian Walter & Alison Stewart & Leo Condron. Plant Soil. doi:10.1007/s11104-012-1198-3

Lottmann, J., O’Callaghan, M.,  Baird, D., & Walter, C. (2010). Bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere of field grown genetically modified pine trees (Pinus radiata D.) Environmental Biosafety Research, 9 25-40.

Schnitzler, F.-R., Burgess, E. P. J., Kean, A. M., Philip, B. A., Barraclough, E. I., Malone, L. A., & Walter, C. (2010). No unintended impacts of transgenic pine (Pinus radiata) trees on above ground invertebrate communities. Environmental Entomolology, 39(4), 1359-1368.

Wagner, A., Donaldson, L., Kim, H., Flint, H., Phillips, L., Steward, D., Torr, K., Koch, G., Schmitt, U., & Ralph, J. (2009). Suppression of 4-coumarate-CoA ligase in the coniferous gymnosperm Pinus radiata. Plant Physiology, 149, 370-383.

Wagner, A., Ralph, J., Akiyama, T., Flint, H., Phillips, L., Torr, K., Nanayakkara, N., & Te Kiri, L. (2007). Exploring lignification in conifers by silencing hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase in Pinus radiata. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 11856-11861.

Möller, R., Steward, D., Phillips, L., Flint, H., & Wagner, A. (2005). Gene silencing of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase in Pinus radiata callus cultures. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 43, 1061-1066.

Hoefig, K., Moeller, R., Donaldson, L., Putterill, J., & Walter, C. (2006). Towards male sterility in Pinus radiata – a stilbene synthase approach to genetically engineer nuclear male sterility. Plant Biotechnology Journal 4, 333-343.

Charity, J. A., & Klimaszewska, K. (2005). Persistence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in transformed conifers. Environmental Biosafety Research, 4(3), 167-177.

Grace, L. J., Charity, J. A., Gresham, B., Kay, N., & Walter, C. (2005). Insect resistant transgenic Pinus radiata. Plant Cell Reports, 24, 103-111.

Charity, J. A., Holland, L., Grace, L. J., & Walter, C (2005). Consistent and stable expression of the nptII, uidA and bar genes in transgenic Pinus radiata after Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation using nurse cultures. Plant Cell Reports, 23, 606-616.

Wagner, A., Phillips, L., Narayan, R. D., Moody, J. M., & Geddes, B. (2005). Gene silencing studies in the gymnosperm species Pinus radiata. Plant Cell Reports, 24(2), 95-102.

Find, J. I., Charity, J. A., Grace, L. J., Kristensen, M. M. M. H., Krogstrup, P., & Walter, C. (2005). Stable genetic transformation of embryogenic cultures of Abies nordmanniana (Nordmann fir) and regeneration of transgenic plants. In Vitro (Plant), 41, 725-730.

Bishop-Hurley, S., Gardner, R. C., & Walter, C. (2003. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Genes Expressed during Somatic Embryo Development in Pinus radiata. Plant, Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 74, 267-281.

Möller, R., McDonald, A. G., Walter, C., & Harris, P. J. (2002). Cell differentiation, secondary cell-wall formation and transformation of callus tissue of Pinus radiata D. Don. Planta, 217, 736-747.

Höfig, K., Moyle, R., Putterill, J., & Walter, C. (2002). Expression analysis of three Pine male cone promoters in the heterologous host Arabidopsis. Planta, 217, 858-867.

Charity, J. A., Holland, L., Donaldson, S. S., Grace, L., & Walter, C. (2002) Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Pinus radiata organogenic tissue using vacuum-infiltration. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 70(1), 51-60.

Bishop-Hurley, S., Zabkiewicz, R. J., Grace, L. J., Gardner, R. C., Wagner, A., & Walter, C. (2001). Conifer genetic engineering: transgenic Pinus radiata (D. Don) and Picea abies (Karst) plants are resistant to the herbicide Buster. Plant Cell Reports, 20, 235-243.

Walter, C., Grace, L. J., Donaldson, S. S., Moody, J., Gemmell, J. E., Van Der Maas, S., Kvaalen, H., & Lönneborg, A. (1999). An efficient Biolistic® transformation protocol for Picea abies embryogenic tissue and regeneration of transgenic plants.  Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 29(10), 1539-1546.

Walter, C., Grace, L. J., Wagner, A., White, D. W. R., Walden, A. R., Donaldson, S. S., Hinton, H., Gardner, R. C., & Smith, D.R. (1998). Stable transformation and regeneration of transgenic plants of Pinus radiata D. Don. Plant Cell Reports, 17(6-7), 460-468.

Wagner, A., Moody, J., Grace, L. J., & Walter, C. (1997). Transformation of Pinus radiata based on selection with hygromycin B. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 27, 280-288.

Holland, L., Gemmell, J. E., Charity, J. A., & Walter, C. (1997). Foreign gene transfer into Pinus radiata cotyledons by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 27, 289-304.

Walter, C., Smith, D. R., Connett, M. B., Grace, L., & White, D. W. R. (1994). A biolistic approach for the transfer and expression of a gusA reporter gene in embryogenic cultures of Pinus radiata. Plant Cell Reports, 14(2-3), 69-74.

Scientific Reviews, Conference Proceedings or Book Chapters on Genetic Modification by Scion Scientists

Walter, C., Boerjan, W., & Fladung, M. (2010). The 20-year environmental safety record of GM trees.  Nature Biotechnology, 28, [Letter to the Editor] 656-658.

Walter, C., & Menzies, M. (2010). Genetic modification as a component of forest biotechnology. In Forests and Genetically Modified Trees. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations.

Fladung, M., Pasonen, H-L., & Walter, C. (2010). Genetically modified trees and associated environmental concerns. In Forests and Genetically Modified Trees. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations.

Fenning, T.M., Walter, C., & Gartland, K. M. A. (2008).  Forest biotech and climate change.  Nature Biotechnology, 26(6), 615-617.

Henderson, A. R., & Walter, C. (2006). Genetic engineering in conifer plantation forestry. Silvae Genetica 55(6), 253-262.

Wheeler, N., Chaix, G., Monteuuis, O., Walter, C., Killerby, S., Wang, H., & El-Kassaby, Y. A. (2004). Preliminary review of biotechnology in forestry, including genetic modification. FAO working paper FGR/59E. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations.

Walter, C. (2004). Genetic Engineering in Conifer Forestry: Technical and Social Considerations. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Plant, 40, 434-441

Walter, C. (2004). Stability of novel gene expression in transgenic conifers: An issue of concern? In A. Mujib, M-J Cho, S. Predieri, & S. Banerjee (Eds.), In Vitro Application in Crop Improvement. Enfield, NH, USA: Science Publishers.

Walter, C., & Fenning, T. (2004). Deployment of genetically-engineered trees in plantation forestry – An issue of concern? The science and politics of genetically modified tree plantations. In C. Walter & M. Carson (Eds.), Plantation Forest Biotechnology for the 21st Century (pp 423-446). Trivandrum, India: Research Signpost. 

Walter, C., & Carson, M. (Eds) (2004). Plantation Forest Biotechnology for the 21st Century. Trivandrum, Kerala, India: Research Signpost.

Walter, C., Charity, J., Grace, L., Höfig, K., Möller, R., & Wagner, A. (2002). Gene Technologies in Pinus radiata and Picea abies: tools for conifer biotechnology in the 21st century. Plant, Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 70, 3-12.

Walter, C., Bishop-Hurley, S., Charity, J., Find, J., Grace, L., Höfig, K., Holland, L., Möller, R., Moody, J., Wagner, A., & Waiden, A. (2001). Genetic engineering of Pinus radiata and Picea abies, production of transgenic plants and gene expression studies. Progress in Biotechnology, 18(C), 211-222.