Protecting our forests from pests & diseases
Protecting our planted and natural forests from insect pests, pathogens and invasive weeds is vital. Scion is New Zealand’s leading authority on forest biosecurity.
Preventing, diagnosing and controlling plant diseases that affect the health of New Zealand’s forests is the focus of our forest pathologists’ work. Our science also helps government agencies to prevent harmful pathogens from entering the country. We specialise in:
- Biosecurity, surveillance and diagnostics
- Chemical control of forest pathogens
- Biological control with fungi and viruses
- Modified silvicultural regimes to minimise the effects of diseases, such as Dothistroma and Cyclaneusma
- Inducing resistance in trees through micro-organisms or genetic selection
- Improving seedling growth using ectomychorrizae.
Scion diagnostic service is underpinned by our Forest Health Collections of fungi, insects and wood and bark boring insects intercepted at New Zealand's border.
Read and download Field assessment, control and identification of common foliage diseases of pine in New Zealand [pdf]
Addressing the threat of Phytophthora
Scion is leading the collaborative programme Healthy trees, healthy future to address the threat of Phytophthora species to New Zealand’s agriculture, horticulture and forest estates. Phytophthora, a genus of soil, water or air borne plant pathogens, pose major challenges to global biosecurity.
This programme builds on our existing programmes for red needle cast, kauri dieback and other diseases caused by Phytophthora species.
- An overview of the ‘Healthy trees, healthy future’ programme
- Tackling crown rot in apples
- Combating red needle cast
- Understanding kauri dieback
Also “New Zealand Geographic” Jan-Feb 2018 article The last of our giants
Listen to Nari Williams talking about the search for disease resistant kauri. [July 2018 RNZ podcast]
The International Plant Sentinel Network
This network taps into vast collections of plants grown in 2,500 botanic gardens and arboreta worldwide to help with border biosecurity. Staff of botanic gardens and arboreta regularly monitor plant health, photograph pests and diseases and collect samples for analysis and identification. These data are available to collaborators to help predict and prevent an invasive insect or pathogen from entering a country.
New Zealand's Better Border Biosecurity (B3) contributes to this initiative, along with Scion and Canterbury University.
Forest insect pests
Global trade places our forests under constant threat from invasive pests. Our entomologists are concentrating on developing rigorous pest surveillance, eradication and control systems.
Scion has dedicated containment and insect rearing facilities that enable us to provide quality forest protection research.
We specialise in:
- Biological control
- Biological and ecological risk assessment
- Biosecurity, surveillance and diagnostics
- Alternative quarantine treatments
- Biodiversity and ecosystem function
Our science is supported by access to the national Forest Insect Collection and BUGS database.
Scion is a member of the collaborative Better Border Biosecurity (B3) partnership.
Our scientists identify, evaluate and rear biological control agents for both weeds and insect pests.
Examples of our biological pest control work include:
- Controlling Buddleja davidii with the buddleia leaf weevil Cleopus japonicus [YouTube]
- Using the parasitoid wasp Cotesia urabae control the eucalyptus defoliator, Uraba lugens or gum leaf skeletoniser
- Watch a wasp larva emerge from its host [YouTube]
- Ongoing work to control Eucalyptus tortoise beetle Paropsis charybdis
- Investigating possibilities for the biocontrol of the giant willow aphid Tuberolachnus salignus
- Control of sirex wood wasp Sirex noctilio
- Advances in aerial spraying contribute to eradication of insect pests [B3 website]
Containment and insect rearing facility
Invertebrate transitional and containment facility
Our transitional facility enables us to manage the biosecurity risks associated with organisms. We use this facility to rear insects for eradication and biological control purposes, for host testing, and to conduct research on a wide range of forestry-related topics for government, industry and the general public.
PC2 Microorganism containment facility
Scion’s containment facility makes it possible for our entomologists to manage and contain the biosecurity risks of new organisms, and to prevent them from becoming established in New Zealand. This includes microorganisms or cell cultures that are designated new organisms by the Environmental Protection Authority (EPA), those that are not known to be present in New Zealand and those not approved for release.
This facility enables Scion to provide a quality forest pest and disease diagnostic and identification service, and scientific research to government, industry and the general public. We maintain microorganisms in containment:
- As reference material
- For small-scale experimentation
- To develop new diagnostic techniques
- For risk assessment.
The facilities are registered under the Ministry for Primary Industry (MPI) standards:
- Transitional and Containment Facility for Invertebrates (Standard 154.02.04)
- MPI/EPA Standard Facilities for Microorganisms and Cell Cultures2007a
The containment facility is operated under strict containment protocols and only trained personnel have access.
Pam Taylor, Quarantine Manager firstname.lastname@example.org
Invasive weeds & wildings
Highly competitive weeds introduced to New Zealand include broom, gorse, buddleia, blackberry, and many others. Managing these weeds during the establishment of plantation forests improves tree survival, growth, crop uniformity and productivity. We provide a range of management tools for weeds and wilding conifers that are both economical and environmentally sustainable.
Scion’s weed management research focusses on:
- Weed risk analysis to identify and manage high risk species
- Herbicide risk to minimise the environmental impacts associated with chemical sprays. Our recent research has confirmed that the most effective weed treatment is the current industry standard, and that the environmental risks are low
- Alternatives to herbicides using non-chemical methods
- Weed ecology
- Vegetation management tools.
- Giving forests a head start with good weed control
- Minimising the environmental impact of weed management in New Zealand's planted forests [pdf] or watch the video
- Minimising the impacts of forest herbicides
- Updates in weed research [pdf]
Wilding conifer control
Wildings are a result of seedlings from introduced trees, mainly conifers, spreading and establishing in areas not designated for forestry. They are causing particular concern in the hill and high country of New Zealand, threatening pastures, conservation lands and disrupting highly valued landscapes.
Scion has been researching wilding conifer ecology and management for over 20 years, supporting regional authorities and landowners in their efforts to control wildings.
Scion’s Dr Thomas Paul leads the New Zealand Wilding Conifer Management Group.
See also Controlled wilding burns
Maintaining our global market access
Forest exports contribute about $5 billion to the New Zealand economy. Our research ensures these valuable commodities are free from pests and diseases that may prevent their entry into foreign ports.
The future of planted forests will be influenced by our ability to respond to damaging pests and the threat of biological invasions. Scion uses a wide variety of techniques, combined with knowledge of tree genetics and forest ecosystems, to develop non-chemical methods for controlling existing pests and preparing for future threats.
Market access research programme
The majority of forest exports are required to meet strict phytosanitary requirements in order to gain access to the importing country. Scion is leading the collaborative Market Access Research Programme to find acceptable and sustainable alternatives to harmful fumigants, particularly the widely used methyl bromide.
As a result of this research, the Ministry for Primary Industries has extended the maximum post-fumigation exposure period for logs exported during winter (June to August) to 21 days, for all New Zealand ports.
See Alternative Treatments for Wood Exports for further information about this programme.
Read Forest Health News stories.
Scion helps forest growers and government agencies to identify, manage and protect against harmful forest insect pests, pathogens and invasive weeds in planted and indigenous forests.
We have supported a number of successful pest eradication campaigns in New Zealand, including painted apple moth, white spotted tussock moth, Asian gypsy moth, fall webworm and eucalyptus leaf beetle.
Our expertise in spray application technologies and risk assessment tools are used to develop best practices for aerial spraying, especially near urban environments where off-target spray drift can have serious consequences.
Pests can be introduced to New Zealand via a number of pathways. Robust biosecurity surveillance is crucial to protect our exotic planted and indigenous forests.
Scion’s extensive research, diagnostic and archival resources underpins New Zealand’s border surveillance system. Our forest health reference laboratories include containment facilities, a molecular diagnostic laboratory, and extensive databases and reference collections for insects, fungi and woody plants.
Scion is part of the Better Border Biosecurity (B3) alliance dedicated to protecting New Zealand’s plant-based biosecurity.
Our research into aerial and ground-based pesticide application technologies has improved the environmental and economic performance of both.
We develop cost-effective biological or synthetic pesticides that provide maximum performance with minimum environmental impact. Much of this research is carried out in collaboration with Plant Protection Chemistry NZ.
Track sprayer facility
Scion’s large scale, precision track sprayer facility allows us to test the many elements that influence spray deposition and retention on the forest canopy in a controlled environment.
We can replicate realistic simulation of spray deposition in a large, enclosed laboratory. The adjustable spray boom allows us to study the effects of canopy type and density on spray deposition. Our research has been used to improve spray deposition models such as the widely used AGDISPTM aerosol spray drift model, and to reduce off-target spray movement such as drift, soil transport and volatilisation.
We use the precision track sprayer to help forest growers and government biosecurity agencies optimise pesticide dosage to control invasive insects, pathogens and weeds on a variety of canopy types.
Our research has resulted in effective aerial spray programmes for the eradication of eucalyptus leaf beetle (Paropsisterna beata) and for the control of needle diseases in planted radiata pine forests.
- Advances in aerial spraying contribute to eradication of insect pests [B3]
- Advanced technologies expand our knowledge of spray deposition
Watch the tracksprayer in action [YouTube]
Pest eradication in the urban environment
We are improving pest surveillance and eradication methods so they are safe to use in urban areas.
Our pest management specialists are developing a toolkit of advanced spray technologies, such as the spot gun and spot-boom methods designed for targeted use in sensitive areas.
Toolkit for the urban battlefield
Scion is leading an inter-agency, MBIE-funded research programme ‘Protecting New Zealand’s primary sector from plant pests: a toolkit for the urban battlefield’. The programme responds to the urgent need to improve pest surveillance and eradication tools for use in urban areas located near sea and air ports.
The programme aims to improve surveillance, develop low-impact eradication technologies, and develop socially acceptable pest control protocols to help agencies apply appropriate risk and communication strategies for urban communities.
Improvements to country’s biosecurity as a result of this programme, are worth an estimated $2.5 billion (net) to the sector. This research programme is linked to Better Border Biosecurity (B3) and the Biological Heritage National Science Challenge.