NZJFS - Volume 35 (2005)
Book review - Gadgil, P.D. et al. 2005: Fungi on trees and shrubs in New ZealandBurdsall, H. H.
Book review - Sands, R. 2005: Forestry in a global contextSutton, W. R. J.
Certification of industrial forest plantations: A view of production forestry in ChileParedes, G
Certification of environmental standards and the sustainable management of industrial plantations have increased rapidly in the last 5 years in Chile. During this period the industry association (CORMA), the Government Forest Research Institute (INFOR), and a technology transfer organisation (Fundacio?n Chile) have led the development of national standards for certifying sustainable forest management, CERTFOR. This process has established in Chile community accepted" criteria for local natural and plantation forests. With different objectives, the ma in companies have adopted one or more of the standards - ISO 14.001, Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), and CERTFOR. However, it seems that sustainable forest management certification has been adopted by the already good performers and no price premium has been observed in the market"
Fast-grown plantations, forest certification, and the U.S. South: Environmental benefits and economic sustainabilityCubbage, F. W.; Siry, J. P.; Abt, R. C.
The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations reports that planted forests comprise 187 million ha, or 5%, of the 3.9 billion ha of forests in the world. We estimate that about 72 million ha of these plantations are fast-grown forests with short-rotation industrial wood production as their primary objective. The U.S. South has the world's largest area of such fast-grown industrial plantation forests, with about 15.3 million ha of intensively managed pine plantations, comprising about one-fifth of the world fast-grown total. Forest certification schemes have been introduced throughout the world to ensure that natural, and especially plantation, forests achieve sustainable forest management economic, social, and environmental goals. Certified forests now include about 272 million ha of forests, or 7% of the total area. Debates over industrial plantations and forest certification are pervasive in the U.S. South, as in the rest of the world. Fast-grown industrial plantations will continue to increase in area and in the share of industrial wood they provide, based on economic returns and wood fibre needs. Forest certification systems are likely to improve the scientific discourse and the opportunities to practise intensive plantation forestry, but not completely quell public debate.
Integrated approach and inventory system for the evaluation of sustainable forest management indicators at local scales in Western European regionsCarnus, J. M.; Tome, M.; Orazio, C.
In the past decade, sustainability of forests has been assessed through monitoring of widely-accepted criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management. Evaluation of sustainable forest management indicators has generally been conducted at national levels on the basis of forest inventory data and agreed lists of indicators from inter-governmental processes. In parallel, forest certification schemes and processes have been developed and are generally conducted at smaller scales such as regional or management unit levels. Increasingly, sustainable forest management indicators will need to be evaluated at those local scales to answer public questions and facilitate social dialogue on the basis of scientifically sound and pertinent information.
To undertake this type of evaluation within homogeneous bio-geographic zones and a socio-economic context, an integrated approach is proposed combining (i) use of reference pilot zones, (ii) elaboration of indicators and evaluation of their pertinence through scientific studies for priority domains (carbon sequestration, forest damage, soil disturbance, landscape patterns and biodiversity, global value of products and services), (iii) comparative test of common protocols, and (iv) organisation and sharing of forest information at regional levels with stakeholders and public. Preliminary testing has been carried out on key indicators corresponding to priority issues for planted forests of European Atlantic regions.
Can we grow certified eucalypt plantations in subtropical Australia? An insect pest management perspectiveCarnegie, A. J.; Stone, C.; Lawson, S.; Matsuki, M.
In the past few years several Australia forestry companies have set in place procedures for certification in sustainable forest management (Forest Stewardship Council and Australian Forestry Standard). Eucalypt plantation forestry in sub-tropical New South Wales and Queensland is substantially different from that in temperate southern Australia, with currently the majority of plantations grown for long-rotation sawlogs, and a range of tree species different from that planted for pulp in southern Australia. Also, the major insect pests in this region are multivoltine and active for much of the year, due to the warmer climate and the short milder winters, compared to shorter periods of activity of larvae of any one species of mostly univoltine insects in temperate Australia. Insect pest management strategies currently used in Australia include tree improvement, improved site-species matching, and chemical control, mostly using an integrated pest management approach. Monitoring is essential for correct timing of insecticide application but, due to limited resources, forestry companies in Australia struggle to monitor effectively for multiple insect pests over extended periods of insect activity. Because of the relative immaturity of the plantation industry in subtropical Australia, and the sensitivity over the use of chemical insecticides by Government forestry organisations (the major growers), little research has been conducted on establishing integrated pest management strategies. In contrast, such strategies, including regular monitoring and chemical control, have been developed in temperate Australia. There are regional issues for cost-effective management of insect pests in relation to certification, including targeted use of slow-release systemic insecticides and future development of insect-active pheromones, kairomones, and synomones. There are many areas that require further research before forest companies in subtropical Australia will be able to sustain forest certification over the long term.
Certification of fast-grown plantation forests - Issues, costs, and benefitsGoulding, C.
Understanding and managing wood quality for improving product value in New ZealandCown, D.
Pinus radiata D.Don comprises about 90% of New Zealand's plantation forests. Management practices evolved rapidly during the twentieth century, and are regarded as advanced in terms of the application of sound scientific and economic principles. However, since the 1970s, forest managers in New Zealand have become more aware of the impacts of genetic selection for growth and stem form, and the adoption of more aggressive silvicultural techniques, on the nature of the resource. These trends have resulted in a significant reduction in rotation lengths from more than 40 years to around 25 years. Growing space, tree age, and geographic location create very pronounced patterns of wood property development and, while growth rates can be impressive, some of the resulting wood characteristics are somewhat limiting for demanding end uses.
Scientific studies over the past 20 years or so have defined the important wood characteristics (knot size and distribution, resin pockets, intra-ring checking, density, spiral grain, microfibril angle) that affect product appearance, stiffness, and stability. Two distinct approaches have been adopted to improve the plantation resource:
(1) Identifying and managing variability in the forest
(2) Breeding to manipulate specific characteristics
Value recovery from harvesting is in rapid change from a system based on volume to one based on quality. There is now a strong emphasis on tools for log and lumber segregation, and reliable methods are available for assessing stiffness at all stages from forest to lumber. For the immediate future, traditional forest inventory methods are being enhanced by the inclusion of wood property information such as wood density and predicted stiffness. Acoustic tools in particular have become common for standing tree and log stiffness assessment and a similar approach is being used for lumber and veneer grading; spectroscopic tools are also under development. Tree breeders are actively selecting material to improve future generations, and fortunately the heritabilities of wood properties are generally high. However, many of these features are costly to evaluate on a routine basis and the search is on for more sophisticated tools to assess performance capability directly. The next challenge is to develop similar cost-effective techniques for predicting product stability. Faster progress will be made when wood processors reward growers for quality wood.
Marketing of forest products in a changing worldHansen, E.; Juslin, H.
Marketing in the forest sector has evolved, responding to new challenges in the business environment. Marketing philosophies have changed from production oriented to marketing oriented and a new era is beginning: responsible forest industry - responsible marketing. Since the 1950s the customer has been the driving force behind marketing thinking. Recently research and theory development have focused on the resources and capabilities needed to satisfy customers and to manage in a highly competitive environment. New paradigms (e.g., key account management) have emerged to manage customer relationships and to build value propositions. The challenge of forest products marketing is to combine the resource- and capability-based view with the customer relationship and value proposition view. Research work targeted to new business models aims at this combination. Future success demands that companies be capable of doing the right thing", "doing things right", and "identifying and using the best available tools". By doing the right thing we refer to social and environmental responsibility. Doing things right means choosing the appropriate approach to a problem (e.g., concentrating on customer relationships and/or company resources and capabilities). Using the best tools available means, for example, embracing new technologies for better marketing information and planning systems.
IUFRO division 5 conferenceRosen, H. N.
Non-destructive methods and process capability analysis to assess conformance of Douglas fir stands to customer quality specificationsBriggs, D. G.; Turnblom, E. C.; Bare, B. B.
Largest branch diameter in the breast-height region (LLBH) and acoustic velocity on lower bole were measured on trees in a 20-year-old Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) experiment comparing seven density management/fertiliser regimes. The less dense regimes tended to have larger mean branch diameter at breast height, with fertiliser increasing the mean even further. However, except for the densest regimes, the difference between a density regime and its counterpart with fertiliser was not statistically significant. The densest regime had significantly higher mean acoustic velocity than the other regimes, which were all the same except for one with very low velocity attributed to abnormal wood formed after damage by black bears. Although statistical significance may be lacking with respect to mean properties, subtle differences in their distributions may be important to timber sellers where purchasers often pay premiums for stands with higher percentages of trees that meet their process and customer needs. A statistical quality control procedure, process capability analysis, was used to assess the conformance of each regime to specifications for largest branch diameter at breast height and acoustic velocity. Conformance of largest branch diameter to a 35-mm maximum ranged from 84% to 100%, with fertiliser reducing conformance by 10-15%. Conformance of acoustic velocity to a 3.5 km/sec minimum ranged from 15% to 85%, with negligible difference between a thinned regime and its counterpart with fertiliser. Joint conformance ranged from 10% to 85%, with generally lower conformance associated with fertiliser. There is potential for using statistical quality control techniques to assist with timber marketing, harvest planning, and monitoring stand development.
Note - Determining sample size for harvesting cost estimationMurphy, G. E.
Sampling design for harvesting studies is usually based on estimating mean cycle times within a given level of precision. Researchers and managers are more likely to be interested in estimating harvesting productivity or costs. These require estimates of mean cycle volume as well as cycle time. A simple method for determining sample size for cost estimates has been calculated.
Environmental certification systems and impacts of their implementation on occupational health and safety in Chilean forest companiesAckerknecht, C.; Bassaber, C.; Reyes, M.; Miranda, H.
Environmental management systems developed by Chilean forest companies in fast-grown plantations and implemented for ISO 14001:1996 certification, best forest management practices certified by the Forest Stewardship Council, and occupational health and safety (OHSAS 18001:1999), have been analysed to evaluate their effects on profitability due to the decrease in work accidents.
The study was a st atistical analysis of data on accident rate, risk rate, and average time lost per accident for up to 25 companies over 7 years. A second phase of the study was extended to 10 years with the same companies and dependent variables. Analysis of variance was used to compare the incidence of occupational accidents before and after the environmental systems, best forest management practices, or occupational health and safety were implemented.
Results varied between companies, a ccording to the specific dependent variables analysed. Nevertheless, after the environmental systems or best forest management practices were implemented most companies showed there were improvements in accident rate, risk rate, and average time lost per accident. For most companies implementation of ISO 14001 and Forest Stewardship Council requirements helped to increase competitiveness by improving safety indicators in a statistically significant way.
Optimal bucking of Douglas fir taking into consideration external properties and wood densityAcuna, M. A.; Murphy, G. E.
During recent years niche markets have begun to demand forest products with specific characteristics. Traditionally markets required products with particular external log properties such as a specific diameter, length, and knot size. However, today's log markets are beginning to include new wood properties, such as basic density and stiffness. Although markets have not accompanied these new requirements with price incentives for producers to meet such demands, the new characteristics are nevertheless valued by these markets. An optimal bucking procedure, which included wood density, was developed. Four hypothetical market scenarios, covering a range of density specifications and price incentives, were evaluated, and results showed that in a density-constrained scenario the total revenue could be substantially less than in a scenario which did not specify density.
Indicative growth and yield models for even-aged Eucalyptus fastigata plantations in New ZealandBerrill, J. P.; Hay, A. E.
Eucalyptus fastigata Deane & Maiden stand growth and yield data were collected from 66 permanent sample plots and 45 temporary plots, sampling even-aged plantations located in six geographic regions between Nelson/Marlborough and Northland, New Zealand. Height and volume growth, and volume yield functions were fitted to the E. fastigata data through non-linear least squares and multiple regression. Site index and volume growth curves that encompass the range of available data were created. Log grade recovery was predicted as a function of average tree size using MARVL (Method of Assessing Recoverable Volume by Log-types) log grade outturn data, and this indicated that recovery of sawlog grades increases markedly with increasing mean tree volume and diameter. Growth data and model predictions show that E. fastigata growth rates vary widely between sites, and that the species is capable of maintaining rapid growth rates to later ages on favourable sites.
Book review - Mencuccini, M et al. (Eds) 2004: Forests at the land-atmosphere interfaceMoore, J.
Sawn timber and wood properties of 21-year-old Cupressus lusitanica, C. macrocarpa, and Chamaecyparis nootkatensis x C. macrocarpa hybrids. Part 1: Sawn timber performanceLow, C. B.; McKenzie, H. M.; Shelbourne, C. J. A.; Gea, L. D.
Demonstration plots of Cupressus lusitanica Mill., C. macrocarpa Gordon, and Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D.Don) Spach x C. macrocarpa ("Leyland") in Rotorua, aged 21 years, were felled to compare lumber performance for appearance and structural uses. The trees had been planted at 1111 stems/ha, and later pruned in stages to height 5-8 m and thinned to 550 stems/ha.
Twenty trees of C. lusitanica, seven of C. mac rocarpa, and 12 of Leyland were cut into 3-m sawlogs and sawn to 150 × 50-mm and 100 × 50-mm sizes, slowly air-dried, then kiln-dried and dressed. Lumber was graded visually as appearance and structural grades. All boards were tested for long-span bending stiffness using the E-grader, and a sample were tested for characteristic bending stiffness and strength.
Each taxon had some advantages and disadvantages in growth, form, and sawn timber characteristics. Cupressus macrocarpa had grown to the same diameter at breast height (dbh) as C. lusitanica, and both had grown much faster than Leyland. Cupressus macrocarpa was the tallest but was badly affected by canker. Leyland had straighter stems than the others, and a higher frequency of branching.
Sawn-timber recovery was 50-60% for all log height classes of each species, except for the butt logs of C. macrocarpa where it was approx. 40% owing to fluting and high taper. Leyland yielded more of the best appearance grades, with 46% Dressing, 35 % Merchantable, and only 19% Box. Cupressus lusitanica averaged 26% Box, and C. macrocarpa 46%. Checks within knots were the worst defect for appearance grades in C. lusitanica, surface checks in C. macrocarpa, and pruned branch stub holes in Leyland. Long-span bending tests showed that C. lusitanica boards were much less stiff than those of the other species/hybrids. Bending stiffness of C. lusitanica was 4-6 GPa for both board sizes, and 6-8 GPa for C. macrocarpa and Leyland.
Stiffness increased from the inner boards to the outer in C. lusitanica (4.3-7.2 GPa). Characteristic bending strength was lowest for C. lusitanica (21.3 Wa) and values for C. macrocarpa (31.4 MPa) and Leyland (28.0 Mpa) were similar to global Pinus radiata D. Don values.
Prior land-use influences wood properties of Pinus radiata in New South WalesRaymond, C. A.; Anderson, D. W
Three pairs of sites in the Oberon area of NSW were sampled to determine the effect of prior land-use (pasture or plantation) on a range of wood properties for Pinus radiata D. Don. Paired sites were matched as closely as possible for climate and soil type. Ten trees at each site were sampled at ages 19 or 20, and outerwood basic density, fibre length, fibre coarseness, and wood pH were determined using breast-height cores. In addition, pith-to-bark profiles for air-dry density and microfibril angle were mapped for each sample.
Consistent differences in wood and fibre properties were found between the paired ex-pasture and second-rotation sites. Overall, the ex-pasture sites produced lower-density wood with shorter fibres, lower fibre coarseness, higher pH, and higher microfibril angle leading to a decrease in calculated modulus of elasticity. However, when results were examined across all pairs of sites, large differences were also apparent within forest areas, with some ex-pasture sites producing better-quality wood than some second-rotation sites.
Despite differences in growth patterns with prior land-use, the age of change from juvenile to mature-type wood was the same for the two site types. In the growth rings closest to the pith, wood density was similar for the ex-pasture and second-rotation sites. However, from Ring 6 onwards density was consistently higher for the second-rotation sites. There was little effect of site type on patterns of change for microfibril angle. The major effect of site type would appear to come from an increase in the volume of juvenile corewood on the ex-pasture sites.
Implications of selecting tree clones with high modulus of elasticityLindstrom, H.; Evans, R.; Reale, M.
To obtain shorter rotation periods for Pinus radiata D.Don, forestry management has an underlying economic incentive to achieve faster tree growth. However, faster tree growth paired with short rotation time implies that sawmills will increasingly use timber containing high amounts of juvenile wood that results in low stiffness and considerable drying distortion of the sawn lumber. A long-term solution to improve solid wood properties of fast-grown conifer trees would be to select and breed trees in which the juvenile wood has a higher modulus of elasticity and lower wood property gradients in the radial direction.
This study was limited to select clone material thought to represent the approximate boundaries for wood property gradients in the juvenile wood of young P. radiata clones. A lower microfibril angle and slightly larger tracheid dimensions could be found in the juvenile wood of clones with high modulus of elasticity than in clones with low modulus of elasticity. This suggested that in clones with high modulus of elasticity there is a smaller wood property gradient in the transition from juvenile to mature wood which would make drying distortion, for example, less pronounced in lumber sawn from high modulus of elasticity timber.
Plantation-grown New Zealand kauri: A preliminary study of wood propertiesSteward, G. A.; McKinley, R. B.
For a preliminary investigation into the solid wood properties of plantationgrown New Zealand kauri (Agathis australis (D.Don) Lindl.), 20 stems were sampled from a 68-year-old planted stand in New Plymouth in the North Island of New Zealand. The stems sampled represented the largest diameters and therefore fastest growing stems (mean diameter 39.4 cm, mean height 20.5 m). Sapwood comprised 80% of the stem at ground level, increasing to 99% at 10 m above ground. Basic density decreased with increasing stem height from ground level to 10 m (469 kg/m3 to 435 kg/m3). Density was uniform across the width of the stem at the butt, and was consistent across the sapwood zones at higher points on the stem. Tangential and radial shrinkage across the width of the stem averaged 4.1 % and 2.9% respectively. Modulus of elasticity (stiffness) averaged 13.6 GPa and was as high as 15.0 GPa, and was uniform across the width of the logs. This study identified homogeneous wood property traits in plantation-grown kauri logs composed mainly of sapwood. The sapwood properties tested were at least similar to those of logs from natural second-growth stands and some were superior to old-growth heartwood. Kauri sapwood logs from plantations have the potential to be a legitimate and valuable resource.
Mechanised versus manual log-making in two Chilean Pinus radiata standsCarey, B.; Murphy, G. E.
The products and value recovered by two log-making systems - mechanised and manual - were compared in two Pinus radiata D. Don stands located at Santa Margarita and Poninquil in the south of Chile. Manual log-making was undertaken by a man marking the position for saw cuts on each stem. Mechanised log-making was carried out with an Ergo HS 16 harvester fitted with an OPTI computerised measuring and log-making system.
At each site both log-making systems were used on the same set of trees. In the manual system, logs were marked for cutting, but the saw cuts were not made. The marks were then removed and the stems converted to logs by the harvester. Forty-three trees were processed at Santa Margarita and 39 trees at Poninquil.
The manual log-making system recov ered more volume and value (~16%) than the mechanised system at the Santa Margarita site. There was no difference between systems at the Poninquil site.
History and management of sirex wood wasp in pine plantations in New South Wales, AustraliaCarnegie, A. J.; Eldridge, R. H.; Waterson, D. G.
Sirex wood wasp (Sirex noctilio Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Siricidae)) is one of the most important insect pests of Pinus radiata D. Don in Australia. Forests NSW manages over 195 000 ha of P. radiata, and is the largest pine grower in Australia. Sirex was first detected in New South Wales in 1980 at Albury, and within 10 years was established in the pine-growing areas of Hume (Tumut), Monaro (Bombala), and Macquarie (Bathurst) regions. It reached northern region (Walcha) in 1997 and spread slowly up to Tenterfield, 25 km south of the Queensland border, by 2002. Although sirex emergence holes were observed in several trees in a plantation near Casino in 2002, no larvae or adults were seen, and no further evidence of sirex was observed, so we do not believe it has established in this area. The northward spread of sirex was assisted by the large pine-growing regions around Tumut, Bathurst, Walcha, and Glen Innes, and smaller private plantations and woodlot and windbreak plantings. Sirex is expected to reach the P. radiata plantations in south-eastern Queensland, and the southern-pine plantations in coastal north-eastern New South Wales, by 2008. Sirex management in this State began in 1981, consisting of releases of biological control agents, surveillance, and silvicultural regimes, and continues today. The sirex nematode, Beddingia (=Deladenus) siricidicola Bedding, provides the most effective control of sirex in New South Wales. Of the six species of parasitoid wasps released in the State since 1980, Ibalia leucospoides Hochenwarth and Megarhyssa nortoni (Cresson) are the only ones regularly detected in sirex-struck trees. Ibalia leucospoides and M. nortoni have been detected in all pine-growing regions in New South Wales, with I. leucospoides having the highest level of parasitism. Damaging outbreaks of sirex in New South Wales, where more than 3% of trees in an area are killed, have mainly been confined to localised areas less than 200 ha, in unthinned stands with trees 10-25 years old, where a biological control programme was not conducted for several years, or in snow-damaged areas. Pinus radiata is the species most susceptible to sirex, although a heavy infestation in P. taeda Linn. observed near Walcha was the first record of this species as a host of sirex in Australia. The annual sirex management programme in Forests NSW, consisting of biological control, forest health surveillance, and silvicultural treatment, has reduced the economic impact of this potentially damaging pest in New South Wales.