NZJFS - Volume 39 (2009)

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    Acknowledgement to Referees

    Falshaw, R
    The Editor is grateful to all the people who have acted as referees for papers submitted to the New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science that have been published in Volume 39.
    Published Online - 1 Dec 2009. [117.7 KB] (pdf).
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    Book Review

    R. D. Burdon
    Burdon (p 259) has reviewed a new book, Conifer Reproductive Biology by Claire G. Williams which is published by Springer
    Published Online - 26 Nov 2009. [412.2 KB] (pdf).
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    Nature's Nanocomposites: A New Look at Molecular Architecture in Wood Cell Walls.

    S. J. Hill, R. A. Franich, P. T. Callaghan and R. H. Newman
    Hill et al. (pp. 251-257) propose a new model for the molecular architecture of wood which interposes a layer of water molecules between cellulose microfibrils and the surrounding matrix. Results from proton spin diffusion, monitored via 13C NMR signal strengths of Pinus radiata D.Don latewood, supported the new model.
    Published Online - 24 Nov 2009. [372.2 KB] (pdf).
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    Density, microfibril angle and modulus of elasticity as indicators of intra-ring checking in Pinus radiata wood

    H. Nair, S. Jackson and B. Butterfield
    Nair et al. (pp. 243-250) undertook a small study to examine various mechanical properties (density, microfibril angle and modulus of elasticity) of intra-ring-checked wood to determine how they differed from non-checked wood. These three properties were found to be insufficient predictors of checking in this small set of radiata pine samples.
    Published Online - 20 Nov 2009. [688.7 KB] (pdf).
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    Characterisation of Wound Reaction Compounds in the Xylem of Tilia americana L. by Electron Microscopy and Cellular UV-Microspectrophotometry

    U. Schmitt and G. Koch
    Schmitt and Koch (pp. 233-241) investigated wound reactions in cells of the boundary layer in the xylem of Tilia americana L. by transmission electron microscopy and cellular UV-microspectrophotometry.
    Published Online - 5 Nov 2009. [553.4 KB] (pdf).
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    Imaging of Lignin and Cellulose In Hardwood using Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy – Comparison of two Methods

    G. Mueller and A. Polle
    Müller and Polle (pp. 225-231) used Fourier transform infrared microscopy combined with a focal plane array detector to illustrate the distribution of cellulose and lignin in wood of European beech. Two independent methods were used for data analysis: (a) an integration; and (b) a correlation method. Both methods gave similar results, but the integration method yielded higher resolution than the correlation method.
    Published Online - 4 Nov 2009. [723.6 KB] (pdf).
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    Biologically Active Polysaccharides in Medicinal Plants

    Y. S. Y. Hsieh, S. F. Liao and W. B. Yang
    Hsieh et al. (pp. 217-223) review biologically active polysaccharides from medicinal plants. In addition to immuno-modulating effects, human clinical studies have shown that some polysaccharides have certain benefits for human health. Most studies have focused on the side chains of pectic rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I), particularly the Type II arabinogalactans, which have been isolated and shown to have anti-complementary and other immuno-activities. These studies have provided valuable information about how carbohydrate moieties induce certain biological events.
    Published Online - 2 Nov 2009. [545.8 KB] (pdf).
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    Actinidia eriantha: A Parental Species for Breeding Kiwifruit with Novel Peelability and Health Attributes

    R. G. Atkinson, N. N. Sharma, I. C. Hallett, S. L. Johnston and R. Schroeder
    In this review, Atkinson et al. (pp. 207-216) describe analysis of biochemical and chemical differences in cell walls of easy-to-peel versus poor-peeling genotypes of kiwifruit, and how these relate to their mechanical, structural and chemical features. They also discuss the health attributes of Actinidia eriantha, including its content of vitamin C, oxalate, triterpenoids and allergens.
    Published Online - 28 Oct 2009. [1.3 MB] (pdf).
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    Probing Cell Wall Structure and Development by the Use of Antibodies: A Personal Perspective

    P. Sutherland, I. Hallett and M. Jones
    Sutherland, Hallett and Jones (pp. 197-205) review the analytical technique of immunolabelling and examine some of the issues involved in obtaining meaningful results based on examples from their own work.
    Published Online - 28 Oct 2009. [1.0 MB] (pdf).
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    Structural Diversity, Functions and Biosynthesis of Xyloglucans in Angiosperm Cell Walls

    Y. S. Y. Hsieh, M. Paxton, C. P. Ade and P. J. Harris
    Hsieh et al. (pp. 187-196) review the structural diversity, functions and biosynthesis of xyloglucans in angiosperm cell walls.
    Published Online - 23 Oct 2009. [691.1 KB] (pdf).
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    Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides: a Commentary on their Role as Agents for Food Structure and for Health

    E. M. O'Donoghue and S. D. Somerfield
    O’Donoghue and Somerfield (pp. 169-185) review the role of plant cell wall polysaccharides as agents for food structure and for health.
    Published Online - 23 Oct 2009. [462.0 KB] (pdf).
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    Immunocytochemistry of Xylem Cell Walls

    Donaldson, L. A.
    Donaldson (pp. 161-168) reviews progress in the field of immunocytochemistry as applied to xylem cell walls, outlining current knowledge and exploring the scope for future investigations.
    Published Online - 25 Sep 2009. [444.8 KB] (pdf).
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    Mannans in primary and secondary plant cell walls

    Melton, L., Smith, B. G., Ibrahim, R., & Schröder, R.
    Melton et al. (pp. 153-160) give a brief overview of the structure of mannans in plant cell walls and other organisms is presented. In particular, mannans, galactomannans and glucomannans in seed endosperm and vegetative tissues such as bulbs and tubers, galactoglucomannans (GGMs) in primary cell walls, and glucomannans and GGMs in secondary walls of hardwoods and softwoods are covered. Possible roles of mannans in primary plant cell walls other than as storage polysaccharides are discussed.
    Published Online - 3 Sep 2009. [319.3 KB] (pdf).
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    Biomodification of Pinus radiata Wood to Enhance Penetrability

    Singh, A., Schmitt, U., Dawson, B. S. W., & Rickard, C.
    Singh et al. (pp. 145-151) have employed an environmentally compatible biological process to remove pit membranes to enhance timber treatability. The process involved placing freshly sawn radiata pine boards in water in plastic troughs in a glasshouse, and keeping them submerged for periods sufficient for the natural bacterial microflora to colonise wood and destroy pit membranes.
    Published Online - 3 Sep 2009. [545.0 KB] (pdf).
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    Xylan Metabolism in Primary Cell Walls

    Brummell, D. A., & Schröder, R.
    Brummell and Schröder (pp. 125-143) review the structures and functions of xylans in primary cell walls of higher plants.
    Published Online - 3 Sep 2009. [556.3 KB] (pdf).
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    A Close-Up View of the Mechanical Design of Arborescent Plants at Different Levels of Hierarchy - Requirements and Structural Solutions

    Eder, M., Rüggeberg, M., & Burgert, I.
    Eder et al. (pp. 115-124) review structure-function relationships of trees and palms. The comparison is made along different levels of hierarchy, starting from the integral level of the stem down to the biochemical composition of the cell walls. Particular attention is paid to the close interdependencies between the structural levels and to the cell wall organisation of the different arborescent plants in terms of adjusting mechanical properties for the specific growth strategy.
    Published Online - 3 Sep 2009. [1.3 MB] (pdf).
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    Guest Editorial

    Schröder, R., Melton, L., Harris, P. J., Smith, B. G., & Schmitt, U.
    The Guest Editors (Schröder et al. pp. 113-114) introduce a Special Issue of the Journal comprising 14 selected and peer-reviewed papers from the 3rd Joint New Zealand - German Cell Wall Symposium held in Auckland, New Zealand from 13 to 15 February 2008. The remarkable breadth of topics was captured under the motto “Plant Cell Walls: Diversity and Approaches to Understanding their Function”.
    Published Online - 3 Sep 2009. [463.0 KB] (pdf).
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    Across-Sites Genetic Parameters of Internode-Length Variables in Pinus radiata assessed by Laser Measurements

    Kumar, S., Low, C. B., & Burdon, R.
    Kumar et al. (pp. 99-111) used a new laser technique to measure internode length between branches of various families of Pinus radiata at two sites. They estimated genetic parameters of mean internode length and internode index, quantified the relationship between Branch cluster frequency scores and mean internode length, and determined the optimum zone of stem for characterising whole-tree mean internode length.
    Published Online - 28 Aug 2009. [642.8 KB] (pdf).
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    Indigenous Plant Species Establishment during Rehabilitation of an Opencast Coal Mine, South-East Otago, New Zealand

    Todd, A. J., Rufaut, C. G., Craw, D., & Begbie, M. A.
    Todd et al. (pp. 81-98) investigated the survival and growth of seven indigenous species in five substrate categories during rehabilitation of an opencast coal mine. Survival of seedlings three years after planting was low (35-55%) on all substrates categories, but seedling deaths were particularly acute on coal-rich waste rock. Height growth after three years on loess was twice that on any category of waste rock. No specific nutrient or trace element factor could be related to better growth on loess. Substrate disturbance history had little influence on seedling survival or growth in the loess but potentially so on waste rock.
    Published Online - 17 Aug 2009. [678.1 KB] (pdf).
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    Effect of Green Density Values on Pinus radiata Stiffness Estimation using a Stress-wave Technique

    Wielinga, B., Raymond, C. A., James, R., & Matheson, A. C.
    Use of acoustic tools for assessing stiffness of green wood in standing trees relies on the assumption of a constant value for wood density. Wielinga et al (pp. 71-79) examined the variability in the green density of the outerwood of 13-year-old Pinus radiata trees and determined the error introduced by using a constant value. Assuming a constant green density introduced a small (~3%) error in the calculated modulus of elasticity (i.e. density ‘as measured’ x acoustic velocity2). Acoustic velocity was the dominant term in the equation. Green density of the fresh core samples showed little variation and was more strongly determined by the sample’s moisture saturation than the amount of wood material (basic density). Modulus of elasticity was inversely related to diameter at 1.3 m. Basic density and fresh moisture content were inversely related. Basic density and fresh moisture content both influenced the acoustic velocity, but their effects were weak and opposite.
    Published Online - 3 Jul 2009. [636.0 KB] (pdf).
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    Fungi Silvicolae Novazelandiae: 8

    Gadgil, P. D., & Dick, M.
    Gadgil & Dick (pp. 65-69) describe three species of fungi that have been recorded but not fully described from New Zealand.
    Published Online - 24 Jun 2009. [872.3 KB] (pdf).
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    Variation In Seedlings of Cupressus lusitanica

    Bannister, M. H.
    Bannister (pp. 57-64) studied the variation in growth habit of seedlings from 28 lots of “ Cupressus lusitanica ” seed, of indigenous provenances in Mexico and Guatemala, and of exotic provenances in Portugal, Kenya and New Zealand. Significant seedlot variation was found both within and between geographical groups. Many of the differences between seedlots may be ascribed to differences in the intensity of inbreeding.
    Published Online - 5 Jun 2009. [883.9 KB] (pdf).
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    Pruned Plantation-Grown Eucalyptus nitens: Effect of Thinning and Conventional Processing Practices on Sawn Board Quality and Recovery

    Washusen, R., Harwood, C., Morrow, A., Northway, R., Valencia, J. C., Volker, P., Wood, M., & Farrell, R.
    Washusen et al. (pp. 39-55) found thinned and pruned plantation-grown Eucalyptus nitens has the potential to supplement native forest ‘ash’ eucalypt logs for the Tasmanian sawmilling industry. Thinning treatment affected some shrinkage traits but for all other measures of processing performance was not significant, for logs of matched size processed with either a back-sawing or quarter-sawing strategy in conventional sawmills.
    Published Online - 4 Jun 2009. [549.2 KB] (pdf).
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    Characterisation of the Polygalacturonase Gene of the Dutch Elm Disease Pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi

    Temple, B., Bernier, L., & Hintz, W. E.
    Temple et al. (pp. 29-37) characterised the polygalacturonase gene from the highly aggressive fungal pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, one of the causal agents of Dutch elm disease. Disruption of the polygalacturonase gene was not lethal to the pathogen but led to a reduction of pectinolytic activity in vitro .
    Published Online - 11 May 2009. [617.2 KB] (pdf).
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    Market Access for New Zealand Forest Products: An Economic and Environmental Case for Development of Alternative Phytosanitary Treatments

    Self, M., & Turner, J. A.
    Using a dynamic market equilibrium model, Self and Turner (pp. 15-27) estimated the benefits of using various alternative fumigation treatments instead of methyl bromide for export forest products.
    Published Online - 29 Apr 2009. [335.6 KB] (pdf).
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    Suitability of Acacia longifolia var. sophorae (Mimosaceae) in Sand-Dune Restoration in the Central Coast of New South Wales, Australia

    Bakewell, G, Raman, A., Hodgins, D., & Nichol, H.
    Bakewell et al. (pp. 5-13) reported that long-stem planting of Acacia longifolia var. sophorae is an effective and reliable method for use in the restoration of coastal sand dunes in New South Wales, Australia overcoming the need for either protective structures or post-planting irrigation.
    Published Online - 6 Mar 2009. [332.9 KB] (pdf).
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    Editorial - NZ Journal of Forestry Science

    Falshaw, R
    The Editor of the New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science outlined the changes being made to the Journal in 2009
    Published Online - 6 Mar 2009. [102.6 KB] (pdf).