NZJFS - Volume 40 (2010)

The New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science had a biosecurity focus in 2010. Volume 40 included the proceedings of the IUFRO International Forest Biosecurity Conference held in Rotorua, New Zealand from 16 to 20 March 2009.  A special supplement to Volume 40 was also published. This supplement contained the proceedings of a biosecurity workshop, held at the Conference on 17 March 2009. This workshop was sponsored by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to explore the different perspectives of scientists, policy makers and forest managers. 
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    Published Online - 2015.
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    Spatial variation in spiral grain: a single stem of Pinus radiata D.Don

    Cown, D. J., Harrington, J., Bourreau, D., Haug, J., & Lee, J.
    Cown et al. (pp. 211-224) studied spiral grain in logs from a radiata pine tree. Two methods - disc scribing and laser dot scanning - were used. The results showed that there can be real variation in radial median spiral grain values of up to 4 degrees. Consequently, assessment of spiral grain angles along single radii (as from breast height cores or discs) is not recommended, unless a minimum of two radii can be averaged to compensate for possible tilt in relation to the stem.
    Published Online - 11 Nov 2010. [1.5 MB] (pdf).
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    The spread of the exotic conifer Pseudotsuga menziesii in Austrocedrus chilensis forests and shrublands in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina.

    Orellana, I.A., & Raffaele, E.
    Invasive introduced species are among the most severe threats to biodiversity and the functioning of natural ecosystems.Orellana and Raffaele (pp. 199-209) found that the establishment of the invasive, introduced species Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) was significantly higher in native Austrocedrus chilensis forest than in shrublands of northwestern Patagonia, Argentina.
    Published Online - 27 Sep 2010. [970.7 KB] (pdf).
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    Genetic improvement of stiffness of radiata pine: synthesis of results from acoustic assessments.

    Kumar, S., & Burdon, R. D.
    Kumar and Burdon (pp.185-197) reviewed results from various studies on genetic parameters of stiffness of radiata pine and evaluated potential for simultaneous genetic improvement of quantity and quality of structural timber. They concluded that a mix of tools, namely genetics, siting, silviculture and segregation, would need to be adopted to maximise quality and quantity of structural grade timber from radiata pine plantations in New Zealand.
    Published Online - 27 Sep 2010. [860.0 KB] (pdf).
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    Correlated response of pulpwood profit traits following differential fertilisation of a Eucalyptus nitens clonal trial.

    Stackpole, D. J., Joyce, K., Potts, B. M., & Harwood, C. E.
    Stackpole et al. (pp. 173-183) examined the response of pulpwood profit traits following differential fertilisation of a Eucalyptus nitens clonal trial. Pulpwood production per hectare indicated that: (i) the choice of germplasm had a much larger effect on plantation profitability than did the starter fertiliser application; and (ii) the gain in pulp production due to starter phosphorus application could be over-estimated by up to 0.6 t/ha or 20% per 12 year rotation due to adverse changes in wood properties.

    Published Online - 16 Sep 2010. [802.5 KB] (pdf).
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    Potential applications of Randomised Graph Sampling to invasive species surveillance and monitoring.

    Ducey, M. J., & O'Brien, K. M.
    Accuracy and reliability demand that surveillance and monitoring of invasive species be statistically sound. However, realistic budget constraints demand that those activities be efficient and feasible. This means that it may be necessary to draw inferences from a sample rather than a complete census. In this paper, Ducey and O'Brien (pp. 161-171) describe a type of sampling called Randomised Graph Sampling and illustrate this approach using simplified examples.
    Published Online - 14 Sep 2010. [953.6 KB] (pdf).
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    Herbicide screening trial to control dormant wilding Pinus contorta, P. mugo and Pseudotsuga menziesii during winter.

    Gous, S. F., Watt, M. S., Richardson, B., & Kimberley, M. O.
    Wilding conifers are a serious threat to conservation land in New Zealand. The current herbicide (diquat) treatment is not very effective, and has an adverse effect on non-target species. Gous et al. (pp. 153-159) compared this herbicide treatment with eight other herbicide treatments to evaluate if there are more effective alternative herbicide treatments to control three wilding conifer species. Treatments were compared using a pot-based trial conducted during winter. Overall, the most effective treatment contained two selective systemic herbicides, triclopyr, and picloram, which caused a minimum of 98% damage for all three species.
    Published Online - 13 Sep 2010. [3.5 MB] (pdf).
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    Implications of climate change for forests, vegetation and carbon in Australia.

    Singh, S., Davey, S., & Cole, M.
    Singh et al. (pp.141-152) discuss how future management of sustainable and productive forests in Australia requires realistic evaluation of the impacts of climate change.
    Published Online - 5 Aug 2010. [2.1 MB] (pdf).
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    Interceptions and incursions of exotic Sirex species and other siricids (Hymenoptera: Siricidae).

    Burnip, G. M., Voice, D., & Brockerhoff, E. G.
    Burnip et al. (pp. 133-140) examine and discuss historical records of siricid interceptions at New Zealand's border, in relation to patterns of interception records over time and the key species intercepted. They also present two recent and noteworthy siricid incursions as case studies, with an emphasis on the science used in decision support.
    Published Online - 19 Jul 2010. [746.9 KB] (pdf).
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    Emerald Ash Borer First Detector: a volunteer early detection programme.

    Gupta, A.
    Gupta (pp. 123-132) explains the details and benefits of the Emerald Ash Borer First Detectors Programme, which is helping to identify new infestations of emerald ash borer in Minnesota.
    Published Online - 8 Jul 2010. [2.2 MB] (pdf).
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    Conservation and management of potentially resistant tree germplasm: a key but easily neglected part of a robust biosecurity strategy.

    Burdon, R. D.
    Burdon (pp. 115-122) argues that the availability of pest-resistant genetic material is a critical part of a robust biosecurity strategy yet stringent quarantine and general regulatory restrictions greatly hinder the importation of fresh germplasm into New Zealand. Commitment from various parties will be required to achieve a solution to this issue.
    Published Online - 7 Jul 2010. [756.8 KB] (pdf).
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    A new approach to stopping the spread of invasive insects and pathogens: early detection and rapid response via a global network of sentinel plantings.

    Britton, K. O., White, P., Kramer, A., & Hudler, G.
    Britton et al. (pp. 109-114) promote the development of a worldwide network of gardens sharing information on pests in order to enhance biosecurity.
    Published Online - 6 Jul 2010. [740.0 KB] (pdf).
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    Initial fall-spring vegetation management regimes improve moisture conditions and maximise third-year Douglas-fir seedling growth in a Pacific Northwest plantation.

    Dinger, E. J., & Rose, R.
    Dinger & Rose (pp. 93-108) present third-year results quantifying the growth response of Douglas-fir seedlings to six herbicide treatment regimes applied during the first two years of plantation establishment. Their results demonstrate how vegetation management prescriptions can ensure successful establishment of Douglas-fir under different climatic conditions while providing a biosecurity safety net that minimises injury to plant community biodiversity.
    Published Online - 5 Jul 2010. [1.5 MB] (pdf).
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    Guest Editorial: Special Issue: IUFRO International Forest Biosecurity Conference 16 - 20 March 2009

    Ramsfield, T. D., & Richardson, B.
    Guest Editorial: Special Issue: IUFRO International Forest Biosecurity Conference 16 - 20 March 2009
    Published Online - 5 Jul 2010. [361.1 KB] (pdf).
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    Evaluation of the strength of shaved steamed Pinus radiata poles.

    Walford, G. B., & Chapman, J. B.
    Walford and Chapman (pp. 83-90) found that stress-wave velocity was more effective than basic density of outer-zone wood for selectiing Pinus radiata poles for structural uses. A minimum stress-wave velocity reading of 2.8 km/s is recommended. The authors conclude that New Zealand Standard3603 should be amended in the light of these findings.
    Published Online - 15 Jun 2010. [850.0 KB] (pdf).
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    The effect of incorporating the height of bordering trees on gap size estimations: the case of Argentinean Nothofagus pumilio forest.

    López Bernal, P. M., Arre, J. S., Schlichter, T. M., & Bava, J. O.
    There is currently no consensus on the best methodology for gap size measurement in Argentinian Nothofagus pumilio forests, which leads to an inaccurate link between ecological studies and management guidelines. This study aimed to produce an experimental method for determining gap size which may be suitable for both forest management and ecological analysis. Based on the results obtained, López Bernal et al. (pp. 71-81) propose the use of polygonal expanded gap diameter/dominant canopy height ratio as a gap size parameter for the measurement of gap size in N. pumilio forests.
    Published Online - 8 Jun 2010. [2.6 MB] (pdf).
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    Susceptibility to intra-ring checking in Pinus radiata: potential for genetic improvement.

    Kumar, S., Cown, D., Ivković, M., & Burdon, R. D.
    Kumar et al. (pp. 61 -70) document assessment methods and genetic parameters (heritability, genotype-environment interaction, genetic correlations) of internal checking. The frequency of internal checking generally decreases with log height. Estimated heritabilities indicated a moderate genetic control, and the estimated between-site genetic correlations suggested that the magnitude of genotype-environment interactions would be lower compared to those generally observed for diameter, but higher compared to those for wood density. Strategies for culling undesirable genotypes from the breeding and production populations are also discussed.

    Published Online - 18 May 2010. [922.9 KB] (pdf).
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    A review of New Zealand kauri (Agathis australis (D.Don) Lindl.): its ecology, history, growth and potential for management for timber.

    Steward, G. A., & Beveridge, A. E.
    Steward & Beveridge (pp.33-59) review the ecology, history, growth and uses of kauri (Agathis australis (D.Don) Lindl.), the only member of the Araucariaceae indigenous to New Zealand.
    Published Online - 8 Mar 2010. [2.8 MB] (pdf).
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    Sawing and grade recovery of 25-year-old Eucalyptus fastigata, E. globoidea, E. muelleriana and E. pilularis.

    Jones, T. G., McConnochie, R. M., Shelbourne, T., & Low, C. B.
    Jones et al. (pp. 19-31) evaluated the processing characteristics of four Eucalyptus species at 25 years of age to determine if these species could be used to produce high-quality timber on shorter rotations. The butt- and second logs of 15 trees of each species were quarter-sawn and flat-sawn respectively, and the boards assessed for shrinkage and distortion, visual and mechanical properties, and surface hardness.
    Published Online - 19 Feb 2010. [801.4 KB] (pdf).
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    Determining and projecting realised genetic gains: Results from early-stage spruce improvement programmes in New Brunswick, Canada.

    Weng, Y, Tosh, K, & Fullarton, M.
    Weng et al. (pp 5 - 17) investigated realised gains from planting improved seedlots in large plots representing early-stage tree improvement activities for Black Spruce and White Spruce in New Brunswick, Canada. Realised gains in this study differed greatly from those observed in the corresponding genetic tests using small-plots. This suggests that using a small plot size for trials could greatly bias the actual gains possible on a plantation-scale, particularly when using seedlots obtained from orchards.
    Published Online - 20 Jan 2010. [677.1 KB] (pdf).
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    Falshaw, R.
    NZJFS Editor , Dr Ruth Falshaw, introduces Volume 40.
    Published Online - 20 Jan 2010. [245.4 KB] (pdf).
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    Acknowledgement to referees

    The Editor is grateful to the following people who have acted as referees for papers submitted to the New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science during the preparation of Volume 40.
    Published Online - 15 Nov 2010. [286.7 KB] (pdf).